Slavery





Amend this!

What are the amendments that are referred to in the textbook? The Constitution is the document that lays down the rights of American citizens and the powers of State and Federal Governments. The Constitution can be amended (changed) if there is a enough popular support in Congress to do so. The three amendments that relate to this topic happened after the north won the Civil War and slavery was abolished.

The Fourteenth Amendment was one of three amendments to the Constitution adopted after the Civil War to guarantee black rights. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery, the Fourteenth granted citizenship to people once enslaved, and the Fifteenth guaranteed black men the right to vote. The Fourteenth Amendment was passed by Congress in June 1866 and ratified by the states in 1868.





Jim Crow Laws


The term Jim Crow originated in a song performed by Daddy Rice, a white minstrel show entertainer in the 1830s. Rice covered his face with charcoal paste or burnt cork to resemble a black man, and then sang and danced a routine in caricature of a silly black person. By the 1850s, this Jim Crow character, one of several stereotypical images of black inferiority in the nation's popular culture, was a standard act in the minstrel shows of the day. How it became a term synonymous with the brutal segregation and disfranchisement of African Americans in the late nineteenth-century is unclear. What is clear, however, is that by 1900, the term was generally identified with those racist laws and actions that deprived African Americans of their civil rights by defining blacks as inferior to whites, as members of a caste of subordinate people.

Location of states with Jim Crow laws
Location of states with Jim Crow laws







Examples of Jim Crow laws





Plessy Versus Ferguson

The basics: The Supreme Court decision in Plessy versus Ferguson (1896) provided Jim Crow states with the legal defense they needed to keep segregation. You can read more about the case here (original article published on http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_plessy.html)

On June 7, 1892, 30-year-old Homer Plessy was jailed for sitting in the "White" car of the East Louisiana Railroad. Plessy could easily pass for white but under Louisiana law, he was considered black despite his light complexion and therefore required to sit in the "Colored" car. He was a Creole of Color, a term used to refer to black persons in New Orleans who traced some of their ancestors to the French, Spanish, and Caribbean settlers of Louisiana before it became part of the United States. When Louisiana passed the Separate Car Act, legally segregating common carriers in 1892, a black civil rights org
Courtroom
Courtroom
anization decided to challenge the law in the courts. Plessy deliberately sat in the white section and identified himself as black. He was arrested and the case went all the way to the United States Supreme Court. Plessy's lawyer argued that the Separate Car Act violated the Thirteenth and Fourteenth
Amendments to the Constitution.
The Plessy decision set the precedent that "seperate" facilities for blacks and whites were constitutional as long as they were "equal."
The Plessy decision set the precedent that "seperate" facilities for blacks and whites were constitutional as long as they were "equal."


In 1896, the Supreme Court of the United States heard the case and decided that the Louisiana segregation law was constitutional. Speaking for a seven-man majority, Justice Henry Brown wrote: "A statute which implies merely a legal distinction between the white and colored races -- has no tendency to destroy the legal equality of the two races. ... The object of the Fourteenth Amendment was undoubtedly to enforce the absolute equality of the two races before the law, but in the nature of things it could not have been intended to abolish distinctions based upon color, or to enforce social, as distinguished from political equality, or a commingling of the two races upon terms unsatisfactory to either."

The Plessy decision set the precedent that "separate" facilities for blacks and whites were constitutional as long as they were "equal." The "separate but equal" doctrine was quickly extended to cover many areas of public life, such as restaurants, theaters, restrooms, and public schools. The doctrine was a fiction, as facilities for blacks were always inferior to those for whites. Not until 1954, in the equally important Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, would the "separate but equal" doctrine be struck down.





Brown versus Board of Education (1954)

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The content below has been drawn from: http://library.thinkquest.org/J0112391/brown_v__board_of_education.htm


Imagine you are a seven year old and have to walk one mile to a bus stop by walking through a railroad switching station and then waiting for a school bus to go to a "black elementary school"external image bd13659_.gif or a school where only African American children went. This is what happened to Linda Brown, an African American third grader from Topeka, Kansas, even though there was a "white elementary school" only seven blocks away. A "white elementary school" was a school where only white students were able to attend.

The Lawsuit Begins
This is how the Brown vs. Board of Education lawsuit was started in 1951. Linda’s father, Oliver Brown, and thirteen other parents tried to enroll their children in the local "white schools" in the summer of 1950, but were turned down because they were African Americans. They were told they must attend one of the four schools in the city for African American children. These parents filed suit against the Topeka Board of Education for their children. Oliver Brown was the first parent listed in the lawsuit, so the case was named after him. At the time of the lawsuit, Blacks everywhere were not treated fairly. For every $150.00 spent on white children at the "white schools" only $50.00 was spent on African American children at the "black schools." The external image pe03254_.gifparents of the African American children thought that their school was not treated as fairly because they were colored. They did not have the most current textbooks, not enough school supplies, and overcrowded classrooms.

After Oliver was turned down by the school, he went to the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) to fight to get Linda in the school. The NAACP hired lawyers to fight for African American children all around the United States to be able to go to the same schools as white children. This case was lost at the state level. The state courts referred to the case of Plessy v. Ferguson which allowed separate but equal school systems for black and white children. Since no court had ever overturned this case, the state courts thought there was no problem treating the black children that way. The state courts also stated that by treating the African American students like that now, they would better accept when they were treated like that when they were older. This was a time when black people of all ages were treated like they were a lower class or segregated. They were unable to eat in the same restaurants, drink from the same drinking fountains, or even ride in the same train cars as white people.

Taking the Case to the Supreme Court
After losing the case in the state courts, the NAACP decided to take the case all the way to the United States Supreme Court. They appealed to the Supreme Court on October 1, 1951. At that time there were several cases in the United States similar to this one, cases that challenged separate schools for black and white students. They were started in the states of South Carolina, Virginia, and Delaware. They were all joined together to be fought as one. Theexternal image j0144821.jpg Supreme Court first heard from the lawyers on December 9, 1952. The lawyers for the Board of Education argued that many people, including black scholars, did not see a problem with having black students attend all black schools. The lawyers for the Browns argued that the only reason for separate education for Blacks and Whites would be if there was proof that black children were different than everyone else. The arguments lasted for three days and the Supreme Court justices talked it over for several months. At that time instead of ruling, they asked the lawyers on both sides some more questions. In the middle of this set of questions, one of the Supreme Court justices died and had to be replaced. A year after the first arguments were heard, the Supreme Court heard the case once again.

After three long years the case finally ended on May 17, 1954 with the court finding in favor of Linda Brown and the other African American children like her. The Supreme Court said that it was not fair to have black and white students separated in different schools. The judges voted on this case nine to zero. It took some states many years to put students together in schools and have them treated the same because many people were still prejudiced against Blacks.

Video on Brown versus Board emphasising the role of children in the struggle:



Some of the consequences of Brown Versus Board of Education (along with those we cover in class)

Consequences in Topeka, Kansas

Soon after the district court decision, election outcomes and the political climate in Topeka changed. The Board of Education of Topeka began to end segregation in the Topeka elementary schools in August 1953, integrating two attendance districts. All the Topeka elementary schools were changed to neighborhood attendance centers in January 1956, although existing students were allowed to continue attending their prior assigned schools at their option.Plaintiff Zelma Henderson, in a 2004 interview, recalled that no demonstrations accompanied desegregation in Topeka's schools:
"They accepted it," she said. "It wasn't too long until they integrated the teachers and principals."[27]
The Topeka Public Schools administration building is named in honor of McKinley Burnett, NAACP chapter president who organized the case.
Monroe Elementary was designated a U.S. National Historic Site unit of the National Park Service on October 26, 1992.

Links to other events in the Civil Rights topic.

Not everyone accepted the Brown v. Board of Education decision. In Virginia, Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. organized the Massive Resistance movement that included the closing of schools rather than desegregating them.[28] See, for example, The Southern Manifesto. For more implications of the Brown decision, see Desegregation.

Little Rock Nine

In 1957, Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus called out his state's National Guard to block black students' entry to Little Rock Central High School. President Dwight Eisenhower responded by deploying elements of the 101st Airborne Division from Fort Campbell, Kentucky, to Arkansas and by federalizing Faubus' National Guard.[29] (Wikipedia)


Radio Show about the effects of Brown versus Board of Education

This is on the American equivalent of National Radio and is intended for an older, educated American audience. Students interested in a more challenging resource might find this interesting....

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1537409





Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955/56)

Great site on the Montgomery Bus Boycott
http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/frontpage.htm

This version has the essential details (but you should make sure you are using your notes!):

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAmontgomeryB.htm
Montgomery Bus Boycott

In the 1950s the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People was involved in the struggle to end segregation on buses and trains. In 1952 segregation on inter-state railways was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. This was followed in 1954 by a similar judgment concerning interstate buses. However, states in the Deep South continued their own policy of transport segregation. This usually involved whites sitting in the front and blacks sitting nearest to the front had to give up their seats to any whites that were standing.

African American people who disobeyed the state's transport segregation policies were arrested and fined. On 1st December, 1955, Rosa Parks, a middle-aged tailor's assistant from Montgomery, Alabama, who was tired after a hard day's work, refused to give up her seat to a white man.


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After her arrest, Martin Luther King, a pastor at the local Baptist Church, helped organize protests against bus segregation. He was joined by other campaigners for civil rights, including Ralph David Abernathy, Edgar Nixon and Bayard Rustin. The group was persuaded by JoAnn Robinson, of the Women's Political Council, that they should launch a bus boycott. The idea being that the black people in Montgomery should refuse to use the buses until passengers were completely integrated. King was arrested and his house was fire-bombed. Others involved in the Montgomery Bus Boycott also suffered from harassment and intimidation, but the protest continued.

For thirteen months the 17,000 black people in Montgomery walked to work or obtained lifts from the small car-owning black population of the city. Eventually, the loss of revenue and a decision by the Supreme Court on 13th November, 1956, forced the Montgomery Bus Company to accept integration. The following month the buses in Montgomery were desegregated.



More complex version of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Goes WELL beyond what is expected for the essay but might be of interest:
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/montgomery_bus_boycott.htm

The Montgomery Bus Boycott started in December 1955. What happened in Montgomery is seen as a pivotal point in the wholecivil rights story and brought to prominence a seamstress called Rosa Parks.
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The structure of southern society pre-1955 ensured that black Americans were very much second class citizens. Southern states had white only restaurants, white only rest zones in bus centres etc. In Montgomery, Alabama, buses were segregated (as was common elsewhere in the South) with specific areas on a bus reserved for white customers and other seats for black customers.


The story behind the bus boycott seems simple - yet, as always, there is more to the story than first appears. After a full day’s work, Rosa Parks got a bus home. The bus was ‘full’ in the sense that all the seats for white Americans were in use. Parks was seated in a seat for black Americans. A white man got on board and found that all the ‘white’ seats were full. The bus driver told four black Americans to move further down the bus. Three complied but Parks refused to give up her seat and was arrested.


In protest, a boycott of the buses by black Americans in Montgomery began. It was probably the first example of the economic clout that the community had because eventually, the bus company had to desegregate their buses or face serious financial difficulties as very many black Americans used the buses. Without their economic input via fares, the bus company of Montgomery faced probable bankruptcy.


However, there is more to the story. Many believe that the act by Rosa Parks was a reaction after a hard day’s work and that it was not pre-planned. The evidence possibly suggests that the whole issue of a bus boycott had been some while in the planning. As early as 1954, twenty-five local associations in Montgomery had informed the city’s mayor, W A Gayle, that a city-wide boycott of the city’s buses was being planned. The city’s Women’s Political Council was planning a boycott in 1955. To give their movement more impetus, they needed a respected member of the community to be arrested for violating city bus law.


Even before the arrest of Rosa Park’s, a fifteen year old student, Claudette Colvin, was arrested on March 2nd 1955 for refusing to give up her ‘white’ seat. However, her case was not pursued by the NAACP as one of the charges against Colvin was assault. What the NAACP wanted was a case that was simply one involved with segregation with no other issue that might cloud the case. The state of Alabama dropped the segregation issue against Colvin and simply pursued a case of assault and battery.


|| "The bus was getting crowded and I remember the bus driver looking through the rear view mirror asking her (Colvin) to get up out of her seat, which she didn't. She didn't say anything. She just continued looking out the window. She decided on that day that she wasn't going to move. There was no assault"
Annie Larkins Price, classmate of Colvin's

||


It was Colvin’s case in Browder v Gayle that was to end up in a federal court in February 1956 and it was around this case that the Supreme Court declared bus segregation unconstitutional in December 1956. Many feel that Colvin has not received the credit she merits for her part in the civil rights movement.


|| "Claudette was very much a part of the beginning of the movement. There comes a time when you just take so much, and I think this community was just waiting for something to happen and for somebody to point the way to do something about the buses."
Fred Grey, who represented Rosa Parks in her state case.

||

On December 1st 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus. Ironically, she got on the bus at the same stop as Claudette Colvin had done on March 2nd 1955. However, Parks had suffered from bus segregation before. In 1943, Parks had paid her fare to a bus driver who told her to get on the bus by its rear door as ‘black’ seats were always at the back of a bus. While Parks moved to the rear door, the bus drove off.


Who was Rosa Parks? She is invariably portrayed as someone who had reached the end of her patience after a hard day’s work and refused to leave her seat on the bus, preferring to rest her feet. While this is almost certainly true, there is more to the story. Rosa Parks had been a life-long worker for the NAACP and she had taken a special interest in the Claudette Colvin case. At the time of her arrest, Parks had just finished a course on race relations in Monteagle, Tennessee. She became a seamstress simply because that was all she could find to do in the segregated society of Montgomery. However, Parks had been educated at the all-black Alabama State College.


When Parks was arrested, the NAACP asked the police why they had done this. E D Nixon of the NAACP was told that “it was none of your damn business.” After finding out the reason for her arrest, Nixon posted the bond required for her release. The Parks case had none of the potential complications of the Colvin case. The NAACP asked Parks if they could pursue her case with regards to the legality of segregation.


A one-day boycott of the city’s buses was organised for Monday 5th December. It proved to be highly successful. A 26 year old minister at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church saw empty bus after empty bus drive down his road. He was Martin Luther King. He would later write that
|| “the once dormant and quiescent Negro community was now fully awake.”
||

Those who had organised the one-day boycott created an organisation called the Montgomery Improvement Association. King was elected its president. MIA had to decide whether to continue with the boycott or to bask in the success of the one-day boycott. Though some wanted to end the boycott after just one day, the vote taken that night showed that the majority wanted the boycott to continue.


City officials in Montgomery tried to undermine the boycott. Black cab drivers had charged the same as the buses in an effort to get black people to work in lieu of there being no buses. However, city officials declared that the minimum fare that a cab driver could charge was 45 cents – so the 10 cents being paid was effectively made illegal. To get around this, MIA introduced a private taxi plan whereby those blacks who owned their car picked up and dropped off people at designated points. This overcame the 45 cents fare issue.


When MIA met with officials from the bus company, they got nothing.


The white community of Montgomery tried to use local newspapers to convince the black community that the boycott had been resolved by printing a story that stated this. MIA had to do a lot of work in a short space of time to convince as many as was possible that the story was a hoax. On January 30th 1956, King’s home was bombed. Men driving the private taxi cabs were frequently arrested for the most minor of traffic violations. Insurance firms withdrew their insurance for the vehicles. King only got round this by getting insurance underwritten by Lloyd’s of London. On February 21st, King along with 88 other people was arrested for organising a boycott which violated an obscure law. He was ordered to pay $500 as a fine with $500 costs.


The boycott badly hit shops in Montgomery as far fewer blacks were coming into the city centre. While shop keepers were opposed to integration, they faced losing their livelihood if the boycott continued.


MIA also used the courts to fight their case for an end to desegregation. By a 2 to 1 majority a federal court deemed segregation on buses to be unconstitutional. The city authorities had argued that integration would lead to violence – an argument rejected by two of the judges.


The black community of Montgomery started using the buses again on December 21st 1956. However, the argument used by the city’s leaders in court came true. Buses were shot at, four churches were bombed, and a bomb was found on the porch of Martin Luther King’s home. Seven white men were arrested for these but no-one was ever found guilty – a deal was done whereby those blacks arrested under the anti-boycott laws had their charges dropped while the seven men had their charges dropped (though King still had to pay his $500 fine).


The violence did end and the integration of the buses in Montgomery went ahead with relative success. On January 10th and 11th 1956, ministers in MIA met in Atlanta other ministers who worked in the south. The result of this meeting was the founding of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Martin Luther King was elected its president. It wanted to build on the success on the civil rights movement in areas such as transport and education but in a non-violent way.
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Martin Luther King Jr. A profile






Martin Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929-April 4, 1968) was born Michael Luther King, Jr., but later had his name changed to Martin. His grandfather began the family's long tenure as pastors of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, serving from 1914 to 1931; his father has served from then until the present, and from 1960 until his death Martin Luther acted as co-pastor. Martin Luther attended segregated public schools in Georgia, graduating from high school at the age of fifteen; he received the B. A. degree in 1948 from Morehouse College, a distinguished Negro institution of Atlanta from which both his father and grandfather had graduated.

After three years of theological study at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania where he was elected president of a predominantly white senior class, he was awarded the B.D. in 1951. With a fellowship won at Crozer, he enrolled in graduate studies at Boston University, completing his residence for the doctorate in 1953 and receiving the degree in 1955. In Boston he met and married Coretta Scott, a young woman of uncommon intellectual and artistic attainments. Two sons and two daughters were born into the family.

In 1954, Martin Luther King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Always a strong worker for civil rights for members of his race, King was, by this time, a member of the executive committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the leading organization of its kind in the nation. He was ready, then, early in December, 1955, to accept the leadership of the first great Negro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the United States, the bus boycott described by Gunnar Jahn in his presentation speech in honor of the laureate. The boycott lasted 382 days. On December 21, 1956, after the Supreme Court of the United States had declared unconstitutional the laws requiring segregation on buses, Negroes and whites rode the buses as equals. During these days of boycott, King was arrested, his home was bombed, he was subjected to personal abuse, but at the same time he emerged as a Negro leader of the first rank.

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In 1957 he was elected president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization formed to provide new leadership for the now burgeoning civil rights movement. The ideals for this organization he took from Christianity; its operational techniques from Gandhi. In the eleven-year period between 1957 and 1968, King traveled over six million miles and spoke over twenty-five hundred times, appearing wherever there was injustice, protest, and action; and meanwhile he wrote five books as well as numerous articles.

In these years, he led a massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the attention of the entire world, providing what he called a coalition of conscience. and inspiring his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail", a manifesto of the Negro revolution; he planned the drives in Alabama for the registration of Negroes as voters; he directed the peaceful march on Washington, D.C., of 250,000 people to whom he delivered his address, "l Have a Dream", he conferred with President John F. Kennedy and campaigned for President Lyndon B. Johnson; he was arrested upwards of twenty times and assaulted at least four times; he was awarded five honorary degrees; was named Man of the Year by Time magazine in 1963; and became not only the symbolic leader of American blacks but also a world figure.

At the age of thirty-five, Martin Luther King, Jr., was the youngest man to have received the Nobel Peace Prize. When notified of his selection, he announced that he would turn over the prize money of $54,123 to the furtherance of the civil rights movement.

On the evening of April 4, 1968, while standing on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis, Tennessee, where he was to lead a protest march in sympathy with striking garbage workers of that city, he was assassinated.


Read Martin Luther King Jnr's speeches: This has the full text from his 'I have a dream' speech and Letter from Birmingham

http://www.thekingcenter.org/history/sermons-speeches/




Little Rock, Akansas (1957)
Good overview of the desegegation of southern schools
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/03_schools.html#video






Sit-Ins and the Freedom Riders (1960 and 1961)

If you are interested in seeing a full-length documentary on the Freedom Riders you can view one here:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/freedomriders/watch

The first chapter is embedded below:

Watch the full episode. See more American Experience.













President Kennedy and Civil Rights




James Meredith and the University of Mississippi (1962)
The content below has come from the excellent Spartacus site!
James Meredith was born in Kosciusko, Mississippi, on 25th June, 1933. While attending Jackson State College (1960-62) Meredith attempted to become the first African American to gain admission to the University of Mississippi.

Twice rejected in 1961, Meredith filed a complaint with the district court on 31st May 1961. Meredith's allegations that he been denied admission because of his colour was rejected by the district court. However, on appeal, the Fifth Judicial Circuit Court reversed this ruling. By a 2 to 1 decision the judges decided that Meredith had indeed been refused admission solely because of his race and that Mississippi was maintaining a policy of educational segregation.

Meredith's admission to the University of Mississippi was opposed by state officials and students and the Attorney General, Robert Kennedy, decided to send federal marshals to protect Meredith from threats of being lynched. During riots that followed Kennedy's decision, 160 marshals were wounded (28 by gunfire) and two bystanders were killed.

Despite this opposition, Meredith continued to study at the University of Mississippi and successfully graduated in 1964. Meredith's account of this experience at the university, Three Years in Mississippi was published in 1966.

On 5th June, 1966, Meredith started a solitary March Against Fear from Memphis to Jackson, to protest against racism. Soon after starting his march he was shot by sniper. When they heard the news, other civil rights campaigners, including Martin Luther King, Stokely Carmichael and Floyd McKissick, decided to continue the march in Meredith's name.

When the marchers got to Greenwood, Mississippi, Stokely Carmichael made his famous Black Power speech. Carmichael called for "black people in this country to unite, to recognize their heritage, and to build a sense of community". He also advocated that African Americans should form and lead their own organizations and urged a complete rejection of the values of American society.

After hospital treatment Meredith rejoined the March Against Fear on 25th June, 1966. The following day the marchers arrived in Jackson, Mississippi. Once again the civil rights movement had shown that it would not give in to white racism.

After his time at the University of Mississippi, Meredith continued his education at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria (1964-65) and at Columbia University (1966-68). Meredith ceased being a civil rights activist in the late 1960s and found employment as a stockbroker.

James Meredith was born in Kosciusko, Mississippi, on 25th June, 1933. While attending Jackson State College (1960-62) Meredith attempted to become the first African American to gain admission to the University of Mississippi.

Twice rejected in 1961, Meredith filed a complaint with the district court on 31st May 1961. Meredith's allegations that he been denied admission because of his colour was rejected by the district court. However, on appeal, the Fifth Judicial Circuit Court reversed this ruling. By a 2 to 1 decision the judges decided that Meredith had indeed been refused admission solely because of his race and that Mississippi was maintaining a policy of educational segregation.

Meredith's admission to the University of Mississippi was opposed by state officials and students and the Attorney General, Robert Kennedy, decided to send federal marshals to protect Meredith from threats of being lynched. During riots that followed Kennedy's decision, 160 marshals were wounded (28 by gunfire) and two bystanders were killed.

Despite this opposition, Meredith continued to study at the University of Mississippi and successfully graduated in 1964. Meredith's account of this experience at the university, Three Years in Mississippi was published in 1966.

On 5th June, 1966, Meredith started a solitary March Against Fear from Memphis to Jackson, to protest against racism. Soon after starting his march he was shot by sniper. When they heard the news, other civil rights campaigners, including Martin Luther King, Stokely Carmichael and Floyd McKissick, decided to continue the march in Meredith's name.

When the marchers got to Greenwood, Mississippi, Stokely Carmichael made his famous Black Power speech. Carmichael called for "black people in this country to unite, to recognize their heritage, and to build a sense of community". He also advocated that African Americans should form and lead their own organizations and urged a complete rejection of the values of American society.

After hospital treatment Meredith rejoined the March Against Fear on 25th June, 1966. The following day the marchers arrived in Jackson, Mississippi. Once again the civil rights movement had shown that it would not give in to white racism.

After his time at the University of Mississippi, Meredith continued his education at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria (1964-65) and at Columbia University (1966-68). Meredith ceased being a civil rights activist in the late 1960s and found employment as a stockbroker.




The 1963 Campaign in Birmingham

The failure of the Albany Campaign





Consequences of Birmingham